Topography

The general appearance of dinajpur district is flat, sloping gently southwards, as is shown by the trend of the rivers. In the south and a portion of the west of the district, there is the curious formation known as the Barind, geologically classed as old alluvium. This is an undulating region interspersed with ravines. The elevations are nowhere worthy of the name of hills the highest ridge not exceeding 100 feet above mean sea level, but they make nevertheless a considerable alteration in the appearance of the country, which elsewhere consists of the flat alluvial plain a characteristic of the Gangetic delta. The ravines vary from shallow stretches of low land, suitable for growing rice, to deeper depressions bearing a resemblance to old river beds and sometimes containing water. These latter are locally called Kharis. The ridges are commonly covered with scrub jungle and stunted trees.

Another marked feature of the district is its tanks, especially numerous in the south, where wells are comparatively little used. These vary in size from splendid stretches of water while justly be called lakes or marshes, to small and insignificant ponds. Most of the tanks have fallen into neglect and are overgrown with reeds and other aquatic plants. Old writers make mention of the large number of marshes. Or beels formed by the overflowing of the river, to be found in the district. It is possible that since those days the face of the country has gradually undergone a change as now-a-days it would be impossible to speak of such marshes as a feature of the scenery. They do indeed exist, and in the rains some of them are of considerable extent, but their number is small compared with the size of the district.

In the absence of hills, it is hard to trace nutural divisions, but there are many points of difference between the north and south of the district. The former is broken up with patches of trees, jungle and clumps of bamboo, the cultivated areas are smaller embowered in luxuriant vegetation. To the south, the country is more open; clumps of trees are comparatively scarce; the villages are often clusters of houses situated on bare ridges or on open river bank, and the prevailing toddy and date-palms give a peculiarly character to the scenery.